Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is normally present in fetal stage also. This is a connection between 2 great vessels of heart, i.e. Aorta and pulmonary artery. It generally closes within 48-72 hours of birth.
Preterm PDA and its outcomes?
Preterm PDAs are having less muscles and less prone for spontaneous closure as compared to term PDA. Preterm babies are less able to tolerate PDA effects as compared to term babies so may require early closure.
Can we close PDA by medications?
Yes but only in premature babies.
Symptoms due to PDA
It depends on the size of PDA and weight of child.
Preterm neonates, as mentioned above are more prone for ill effects of PDA. They may be dependent on ventilatory support, may have difficult breathing/feeding, poor weight gain etc.
In full term babies (>37 weeks of gestation), depending on size of PDA, they may have poor weight gain, difficulty in feeding or fast breathing in case of Large PDA.
In small sized PDA, child may not be having any symptoms and PDA comes into notice by hearing an abnormal sound in chest on examination.
What are the options for closure of PDA?
If premature PDAs are not getting closed by medications then either ligation of PDA by surgery or now even we can close preterm PDA by device method (without surgery).
Most commonly, device method is advised for closing the PDA. In very few cases, surgery is advised.
Please see article on management of PDA as device closure of PDA in “Intervention cardiology section”on www.childrenheartcare.com.