When a child comes with complaints of bluish discoloration of lips and fingers (cyanosis), it can be of various causes like lung, cardiac, brain causes etc.
If the child age is around 6 months to one year of age then mostly it is thought that it is an episode of breath holding spell. But it can be due to cyanotic heart diseases (CCHD) that lead to decrease oxygen content into the body and leads to cyanosis.
There are various types of CCHD that leads to such situation.
Most common CCHD that leads to cyanosis in neonates is Transposition of great vessels(d-TGA).
Others causes of cyanosis in children can be Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), TAPVC Truncusarteriosus, double outlet ventricle (DORV/DOLV), Ebstein’s anomaly, tricuspid atresia, hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), Eisenmengers complex, pulmonary atresia etc.
In cases of acyanotic congenital heart disease like large hole in the heart (VSD, PDA, AVSD etc); if child is not treated early then also these lesions can present as cyanotic heart disease known as Eisenmenger Syndrome (End stage heart disease).
All cyanotic CHDs have to manage early, depending on type of lesion and associated symptoms. Modality of treatment is mainly by open heart surgery.
Please refer to common cardiac condition section of www.childrenheartcare.com for detailed description of these diseases.