Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM/HOCM) is characterized by thickening of heart walls with no cause clinically. This can results in poor capability of the heart for pumping of blood forward to the body.

It is a genetic disease.

Symptoms

Child can be asymptomatic or may have symptoms like

  • Easy fatigue, irregular heartbeat, chest pain, fainting attacks, difficulty in breathing due to heart failure etc.
  • Child can be prone for sudden cardiac arrest as well.

Diagnosis

  • ECG
  • Echocardiogram of the child
  • Cardiac MRI
  • Genetic testing should also be done for confirmation.
  • Sometimes, stress testing is also advised.
  • Rarely cardiac catheterization

Treatment

  • Drugs like beta blockers, diuretics, disopyramide etc
  • If prone for cardiac arrest then automated implantable cardiac defibrillator(AICD) is advised for abnormal heart beats and rhythm
  • Alcohol septal ablation
  • Surgery can be done in the form of excessive muscle resection (septal myomectomy) and in later stages; the only option left is transplant of the heart.

Prognosis

HCM is having annual mortality of approximately 1% per year.

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