Kawasaki disease is a disease that affects skin, mouth, and lymph nodes. Most commonly affected age group is around 5 years of age.
Etiology of this disease is not known.
Kawasaki Clinical Features
Clinical features are divided into 3 groups:
Acute phase: Last up to 2 weeks approximately. Most common symptom in this phase is fever that usually last for 5 days.
Other symptoms may be:
- Redness in the eyes
- Red, dry, cracked lips
- Rash on the body
- Swollen lymph nodes
- Swollen tongue with a white coating and big red bumps (called “strawberry tongue”)
Second Phase: Usually begins within 2 weeks of when the fever started, begins with peeling of skin. Other symptoms can be joint pain, abdominal pain, diarrhea.
Kawasaki disease diagnosed when child with fever lasting 5 or more days and at least four of these symptoms:
- redness in both eyes
- a rash in the chest, stomach, or genital area
- a large swollen lymph node in the neck
- changes around the lips, tongue, or mouth
- changes in the fingers and toes, such as swelling, color change, or peeling
- red, swollen palms of hands and soles of feet
Treatment should be started as soon as possible, ideally within 10 days of when the fever begins. It is by giving IV Immunoglobulin along with high dose of aspirin. Later on low dose aspirin to be continued for a long duration depending on how much coronary arteries are affected.
Most child recover completely.
If not treated properly especially not treated in first 10 days of illness, Kawasaki disease may affect heart especially coronary arteries. Can leads to vasculitis of coronary arteries.
Cardiac arrhythmia or abnormal functioning of some heart valves also can occur.