Newborns those require interventions are generally sick and require NICU care including ventilator support.
In cyanotic heart diseases with restrictive PFO with d-TGA, PFO can be opened by using a balloon (Balloon atrial septostomy, BAS).
Sometimes, instead of using balloon, we need to place a stent across the defect if not suitable for balloon (inter-atrial septal stenting, IAS stenting) in the same situation.
In duct dependent pulmonary circulation (in pulmonary atresia), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is the sole supply for the lungs, PDA can be palliated by putting a stent (Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) stenting) so that blood supply to the lungs can be restored.
In neonates with severe coarctation with left ventricle dysfunction, we need to palliate this issue by inflating a balloon across the narrowed segment (Coarctation of aorta (COA) balloon dilatation) so that afterload on left ventricle can be reduced and when the contractility of left ventricle improved, surgical repair can be taken up.