There may be an obstruction or narrowing in cardiac valves or vessels (severe aortic or pulmonary valve stenosis or coarctation of aorta; congenital heart disease).

These can be treated in cath lab by inflating a balloon across the valve or vessel so that valve or vessel can be opened known as Ballooning of Aortic or Pulmonary valves, ballooning of coarctation of aorta or pulmonary artery.

In vessel stenosis or obstruction like coarctation of aorta or pulmonary artery narrowing, instead of using balloon, a stent (coarctation of aorta stenting or pulmonary artery stenting) can be placed across the narrowed vessel for opening it.

Result of stent deployment is better as compared to balloon dilatation.

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